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Malaria
Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and an enormous public health problem. The disease is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Only four types of the plasmodium parasite can infect humans; the most serious forms of the disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but other related species (Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae) can also affect humans. This group of human-pathogenic Plasmodium species is usually referred to as malaria parasites. The parasites destroy host red blood cells, resulting in anemia, fever, and chills. The illness is a driving force for human evolution and has changed the course of history on many occasions. Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria, and they must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken on an infected person. Even today, with recent and profound understanding of the vector and the pathogen, the disease causes an estimated 2 million deaths every year; hundreds of millions more are infected with the parasite but do not die from the disease.


 
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